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Repairs vs. Improvements to Your Rental Property

When filing your taxes or deciding what changes to make to your rental property, understanding repairs and capital improvements makes a world of a difference.

To help keep you on track, we'll illuminate the critical differences between rental property repairs and improvements, their tax implications, and best practices for property owners. That way, you’ll have a clear understanding of how to classify your expenses and maximize your tax benefits.



Rental Property Repairs vs. Improvements

At first glance, repairs and improvements may seem interchangeable, but there’s a crucial distinction for tax purposes.

Repairs are necessary to maintain the property’s condition, while improvements add value or extend the useful life of the property. Knowing the difference between the two is essential for OKCREAL property owners to benefit from tax breaks, deductions, credits, and other ways to save on expenses.


To identify whether a maintenance job is a repair or a capital improvement, ask yourself these questions:

Does the task add any value to the property beyond its original value? Does it simply restore the property back to its original value?


The tax implications for repairs and improvements are quite different: Repairs can be deducted in the same year they occur, while improvements must be depreciated over an extended period (up to 27.5 years for residential properties).

Defining Rental Property Repairs and Examples


In general, OKCREAL rental property repairs aim is to keep the property livable and up to any legal requirements, ensuring all major or structural components are in good working condition. The IRS considers repairs as any work done to achieve this.

Based on the aforementioned criteria, fixing a leaky roof is a repair, while completely replacing the roof is an improvement.


Other examples include the following:

Fixing a tap Repainting surfaces Repairing an air conditioner Maintaining appliances Defining Capital Improvements and Examples

When it comes to capital improvements vs. regular maintenance, capital improvements enhance the property beyond its original condition.


These include:

Adding a new room Upgrading appliances Replacing a roof Putting in a new HVAC system Remodeling a kitchen or bathroom Installing new windows or doors Significant maintenance jobs that turn into improvements (e.g., replacing an extensive section of pipes that requires taking up the entire kitchen floor) In this case, the expense would be classified as a capital improvement, falling under the category of capital expenditures.

Capital improvements can add value to an investment property, making it more attractive to potential buyers.


IRS List of Capital Improvements

The IRS provides guidelines for classifying capital improvements:

Betterments, or improvements that increase the property value Restorations, or improvements that return the property to its original condition Adaptations, or improvements that change the property to a new use Each of these terms represents a different type of capital improvement, with specific tax implications depending on the nature of the work done on the property.


IRS list of capital improvements to understand capital improvements vs repairs Tax Implications for Rental Property Owners


Understanding the tax implications of rental property repairs and improvements is essential for maximizing your tax benefits and overall profits.

In the following subsections, we’ll delve into the specifics of deducting repair expenses and depreciating capital improvements.


Deducting Repair Expenses

Repair expenses can be deducted in the year they occur, directly reducing your taxable income. This means that as an OKCREAL rental property owner, you can claim 100% of repair costs in the same year they occur, lowering your overall tax liability.

By taking advantage of this deduction, you can save money on your taxes and keep more of your money.


Depreciating Capital Improvements

Capital improvements, however, must be depreciated over time. For residential properties, the depreciation period is typically 27.5 years. This means that the cost of capital improvements is spread out over their useful life, providing tax benefits over an extended period. While this may not provide an immediate tax deduction like repairs, it still offers valuable tax advantages in the long run.


Depreciating capital improvements vs deducting repair expenses for your investment property Useful Life and Cost Basis Considerations

When it comes to classifying repairs and improvements, useful life and cost basis considerations play a significant role. Useful life refers to the expected functional lifespan of an asset, while cost basis is the original cost of an asset, with capital improvements added and repairs deducted.Cost basis is used to determine capital gains or losses when the asset is sold.


For OKCREAL rental property owners, the cost basis includes:

The purchase price Stock splits Dividends Return of capital distributions Capital improvements increase the cost basis, while repairs decrease it.


Real-Life Examples

Let’s consider a real-life example to illustrate the difference between repairs and improvements in terms of useful life and cost basis. Suppose you own an OKCREAL rental property with a plumbing problem that requires you to replace a section of pipes and the entire kitchen floor. The pipe replacement is a repair, while the kitchen floor replacement is a capital improvement.

The repair expense can be deducted in the same year, while the improvement must be depreciated over its useful life, affecting the cost basis of the property.

Navigating IRS Rules and Safe Harbors

Navigating IRS rules and safe harbors is essential for OKCREAL rental property owners to maximize their tax benefits. The IRS provides guidelines on classifying repairs and improvements. It also defines safe harbor provisions that allow landlords to deduct expenses without determining if they are repairs or improvements, subject to certain limits. We'll discuss this in more detail below.


Units of Property and Building Systems

The concept of unit of property (UOP) and building systems is important for determining whether the work done on an OKCREAL rental property, which is a type of personal property, is a deductible repair or a depreciable improvement.

The IRS requires buildings to be divided into as many as nine different UOPs, including the whole structure and up to eight separate building systems, such as mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems.Improving a building’s UOP, like replacing the entire roof, is considered a capital improvement.


Examples of UOPs include the following:

Each building and its structural components is a separate unit-of-property. In determining whether an expenditure is an improvement, the taxpayer must consider the effect of the expenditure on the building structure itself and on certain specifically defined components of the building (the "building systems"). Each of the following "building systems" is defined as a separate unit-of-property:

  • HVAC system (including motors, compressors, boilers, furnace, chillers, pipes, ducts, radiators)

  • Plumbing system (including pipes, drains, valves, sinks, bathtubs, toilets, etc.)

  • Electrical systems (including wiring, outlets, junction boxes, lighting fixtures etc.)

  • Escalators

  • Elevators

  • Fire-protection and alarm systems (including sensing devices, computer controls, sprinkler heads, sprinkler mains, etc.)

  • Security systems for the protection of the building and its occupants (including window and door locks, security cameras, recorders, monitors, etc.)

  • Gas distribution system (including associated pipes and equipment used to distribute gas)

  • Other structural components identified in published guidance from the IRS

Safe Harbor Provisions

Safe harbor provisions, such as the routine maintenance, allow OKCREAL investors to deduct maintenance expenses without determining if they are repairs or improvements, subject to certain limits.


The routine maintenance safe harbor provisions of the IRS tax code permits real estate investors to deduct all yearly expenses for repairs and improvements for an OKCREAL rental property on Schedule E. However, the annual limit for small taxpayers is either 2% of the rental’s cost or $10,000, whichever is less.

Understanding and utilizing these safe harbor provisions can help OKCREAL rental property owners maximize their tax benefits.


Best Practices for OKCREAL Property Owners

To ensure success as an OKCREAL rental property owner, it’s essential to follow best practices, such as consulting professionals and maintaining accurate records.


Consulting Professionals

Consulting professionals, such as an accountant or tax advisor, can provide valuable guidance on: Classifying expenses Maximizing tax benefits Navigating IRS rules and safe harbors Staying up-to-date on relevant laws and regulations related to rental properties Other professionals, such as property managers or real estate attorneys, can also provide helpful insights

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